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A Field Theory Demonstrating
The “Strong Nuclear Force” and Gravity
Are One And The Same
Using Quantum Mechanics
Newton’s Law of Gravity
and
Einstein’s General Relativity Theory



by
Kenneth F. Wright, P.E.
June 24, 2016

Updated August 12, 2016


© Copyright Kenneth F. Wright, June 24, 2016.
All rights reserved.  No portion of this document may be reproduced
in any form without written permission of the author.





Ground Rules
  1. If the Strong Nuclear Force is Gravity, then the Nuclear Gravitation Field must initially be a stronger field of attraction than the Coulombic repulsive field of the Nuclear Electric Field tending to repel Protons from the Nucleus.

  2. If the Strong Nuclear Force is Gravity, then the Nuclear Gravitation Field should propagate in all directions outward from the Nucleus of the Atom to infinity.

  3. If the Strong Nuclear Force is Gravity and the Classical Physics shape of the Nucleus forms a near perfect sphere, then the Nuclear Gravitation Field should propagate outward from the Nucleus omnidirectional with spherical symmetry to infinity.  In this case, the Nuclear Gravitation Field intensity should drop off as a function of 1/r2 in like manner to Newton’s Law of Gravity where r is the distance from the center of the Nucleus to the center of the Proton or Neutron being evaluated.  The first equation mathematically defines Newton’s Law of Gravity where F is the gravitational force of attraction between spherical mass M1 and spherical mass M2, G is the Universal Gravitation Constant, and r is the distance between the center of mass M1 and center of mass M2.  The second and third equations evaluate the acceleration field aM1 equal to the gravitational field gM1 of mass M1 acting upon mass M2.

    Newton’s Law of Gravity Force = Mass x Acceleration Gravitational Acceleration

    Classical Mechanics excluding Quantum Mechanics states:

    Total Energy   =   Kinetic Energy   +   Potential Energy

    TE   =   KE   +   PE

    Total Energy

    Quantum Mechanics uses the Schrodinger Wave Equation to evaluate total energy of an atomic or nuclear particle such as the electron, proton, or neutron.  The general form of the equation is as follows:

    Total Energy   =   Kinetic Energy   +   Potential Energy

    Schrodinger Wave Equation - Generic Potential Function

    Where the General Schrodinger Wave Equation is defined in Spherical Coordinates:  i is the square root of −1, h-bar is Planck’s Constant, h, divided by 2π, ∂ is the first order partial derivative operator, ψ is the wave function of the particle being evaluated, ∇2 is the second order spatial derivative operator, r is the distance from the center of the Nucleus to the center of the particle being evaluated, θ is the azimuthal angle of the particle being evaluated relative to the Nucleus from 0 to 2π radians, φ is the altitude angle of the particle being evaluated relative to the Nucleus from –π/2 to +π/2 radians, t is time, m is the mass of the particle being evaluated, V is the general Potential Function operating on particle wave function ψ.

    The Schrodinger Wave Equation for the Nuclear Electric Field Potential is a Quantum Mechanical Analysis of the Electron in position around a given Nucleus.  This equation assumes the Nucleus is a point source of the Electric Field because the radius of the Atom containing the electrons range from 30,000 to 100,000 times the radius on the Nucleus.  Therefore, the Nuclear Electric Field appears to propagate outward from the Nucleus omnidirectional with spherical symmetry to infinity.  The Nuclear Electric Field intensity drops off as a function of 1/r2 where r is the radial distance of the Electron being evaluated from the Nucleus.  The Schrodinger Wave Equation for the Total Energy of the electron of interest being evaluated about the Nucleus is as follows:

    Schrodinger Wave Equation - Nuclear Electric Field

    Where Z is the number of Protons in the Nucleus, e is the value of electric charge of a single Proton, and ∈0 is the permittivity of the Electric Field in free space.

    The solutions to the Schrodinger Wave Equation for the Nuclear Electric Field Potential are known, define how the electron energy levels are filled about the Nucleus, and produce the Periodic Table of the Elements which define the chemical properties of those elements.  The solutions to the Schrodinger Wave Equation for the Nuclear Electric Field establish how each of the energy level fill if the function used to determine Potential Energy of a particle of interest is proportional to 1/r2.

    When the Nucleus of the Atom meets a classical physical configuration that supports a Nuclear Gravitation Field Potential function proportional to 1/r2 because the field propagates outward omnidirectional with spherical symmetry, Schrodinger Wave Equation

    Schrodinger Wave Equation - Nuclear Gravity Field

    can be considered valid.  It is expected that all the applicable energy levels for protons and neutrons will fill in identical manner as the same applicable energy levels for electrons are filled.  For the Schrodinger Wave Equation for the Nuclear Gravitation Field:  G is the Universal Gravitation Constant, Z is the number of Protons in the Nucleus, mp is the mass of a Proton, N is the number of Neutrons in the Nucleus, and mn is the mass of a Neutron.

    NOTE:  
       
    The constant G would be consistent with the Universal Gravitation Constant outside the electron cloud.  Its value may very well be 1030 times larger within the nucleus of the atom.
  4. If the Strong Nuclear Force is Gravity and the calculated Nuclear Gravitation Field intensity at the surface of the Nucleus of the Atom is greater than or equal to the gravity field of our Sun, then the General Relativity effect of Space-Time Compression must be considered to take place.

  5. If the Strong Nuclear Force is Gravity, then the Nuclear Gravitation Field must be associated with specific energy levels of the Protons and Neutrons in the Nucleus of the Atom, therefore, must be considered quantized because the Nuclear Gravitation Field intensity is concentrated at specific energy level spectral lines.  The quantized Nuclear Gravitation Field intensity versus the average gravity field intensity should be analogous to a quantized photon of energy to the average energy from light distributed evenly upon a surface.

  6. If the Strong Nuclear Force is Gravity, the Nuclear Gravitation Field must propagate outward from the Atom with the extremely feeble intensity currently observed - the weakest field associated with the Atom.




Compare Electron Energy Levels to Proton and Neutron Energy Levels

>
Energy Level Magic Numbers
Energy
Level
Electrons
-1e0
Energy
Level
Δ
Protons
1H1
Energy
Level
Δ
Neutrons
0n1
Energy
Level
Δ
1
2
---
2
---
2
---
2
10
8
8
6
8
6
3
18
8
20
12
20
12
4
36
18
28
8
28
8
5
54
18
50
22
50
22
6
86
32
82
32
82
32
7
118
32
114
32
126
44
8
168
50
164
50
184
58

Magic Numbers represent the number of Electrons, Protons, or Neutrons to completely fill energy levels.  Matching Energy Level Changes for Protons or Neutrons to Electrons are in Red.

The Nuclear Gravitation Field solutions to Schrodinger Wave Equation differ from Schrodinger Wave Equation solutions to the Nuclear Gravitation Electric Field.  Newton’s Law of Gravity assumes Masses M1 and M2 are spherical.  Stars, Planets, and Moons are, typically, spherical, therefore the 1/r2 Gravity Field Potential Function attracting mass M2 to mass M1 of the equation is valid.

Newton’s Law of Gravity Gravity Field

The Nuclear Gravitation Field Gravity Field Potential Function will be dependent upon the shape of the Nucleus as “seen” by the Proton or Neutron of interest next to Nucleus.



Periodic Table of the Elements
Group 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
Period s-Orbitals d-Orbitals p-Orbitals
1 1
H
2
He
1
H
2
He
2 3
Li
4
Be
5
B
6
C
7
N
8
O
9
F
10
Ne
3 11
Na
12
Mg
13
Al
14
Si
15
P
16
S
17
Cl
18
Ar
4 19
K
20
Ca
21
Sc
22
Ti
23
V
24
Cr
25
Mn
26
Fe
27
Co
28
Ni
29
Cu
30
Zn
31
Ga
32
Ge
33
As
34
Se
35
Br
36
Kr
5 37
Ru
38
Sr
39
Y
40
Zr
41
Nb
42
Mo
43
Tc
44
Ru
45
Rh
46
Pd
47
Ag
48
Cd
49
In
50
Sn
51
Sb
52
Te
53
I
54
Xe
6 55
Cs
56
Ba
* 71
Lu
72
Hf
73
Ta
74
W
75
Re
76
Os
77
Ir
78
Pt
79
Au
80
Hg
81
Tl
82
Pb
83
Bi
84
Po
85
At
86
Rn
7 87
Fr
88
Ra
** 103
Lr
104
Rf
105
Db
106
Sg
107
Bh
108
Hs
109
Mt
110
Ds
111
Rg
112
Cn
113
Nh
114
Fl
115
Mc
116
Lv
117
Ts
118
Og
f-Orbitals
*  Lanthanoid Series 57
La
58
Ce
59
Pr
60
Nd
61
Pm
62
Sm
63
Eu
64
Gd
65
Tb
66
Dy
67
Ho
68
Er
69
Tm
70
Yb
**  Actinoid    
Series
89
Ac
90
Th
91
Pa
92
U
93
Np
94
Pu
95
Am
96
Cm
97
Bk
98
Cf
99
Es
100
Fm
101
Md
102
No

Elements with Electron Magic Numbers are in Group 18 at the right.  Elements with Proton Magic Numbers are outlined in Red.

Reference:  http://www.webelements.com/index.html



Electron Configuration and Energy Levels
for the Periodic Table of the Elements
Group 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
Period s-Orbitals d-Orbitals p-Orbitals
1 1s1
1s2
1s1
1s2
2 2s1 2s2 2p1 2p2 2p3 2p4 2p5 2p6
3 3s1 3s2 3p1 3p2 3p3 3p4 3p5 3p6
4 4s1
4s2
3d1 3d2 3d3 3d4 3d5 3d6 3d7
3d8
3d9 3d10 4p1 4p2 4p3 4p4 4p5 4p6
5 5s1 5s2 4d1 4d2 4d3 4d4 4d5 4d6 4d7 4d8 4d9 4d10 5p1
5p2
5p3 5p4 5p5 5p6
6 6s1 6s2 * 5d1 5d2 5d3 5d4 5d5 5d6 5d7 5d8 5d9 5d10 6p1
6p2
6p3 6p4 6p5 6p6
7 7s1 7s2 ** 6d1 6d2 6d3 6d4 6d5 6d6 6d7 6d8 6d9 6d10 7p1
7p2
7p3 7p4 7p5 7p6
f-Orbitals
*  Lanthanoids 4f1 4f2 4f3 4f4 4f5 4f6 4f7 4f8 4f9 4f10 4f11 4f12 4f13 4f14
**   Actinoids    5f1 5f2 5f3 5f4 5f5 5f6 5f7 5f8 5f9 5f10 5f11 5f12 5f13 5f14

Electrons fill the electron energy levels starting from left to right along each row and by rows from top to bottom.  Hydrogen (H), with a 1s1 electron configuration, and Helium (He), with a 1s2 electron configuration, are placed at the top of the Periodic chart on both sides for the Periodic Table of the Elements because the first electron energy level consists only of an “s Orbital” and Hydrogen can take on the characteristic of either an Alkali Metal and as a Halogen and Helium is a Noble Gas.

Reference:  http://www.webelements.com/index.html


Nuclei with the number of Protons and/or Neutrons less than 50 typically will have a classical shape that deviates from a near perfect spherical shape.  If the classical shape of the Nucleus is not spherical, then the Nuclear Gravitation Field would not be a 1/r2 potential function within the Schrodinger Wave Equation defining the Proton or Neutron Total Energy and Nuclear Energy Level fills for Protons and Neutrons would be expected to deviate from energy level fills for Electrons as observed.  Therefore, either the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle does not drive how Proton and Neutron Energy Levels are filled or the method of fill of the nuclear energy levels cannot confirm the Strong Nuclear Force being equivalent to Gravity.

NNuclei with the number of Protons and/or Neutrons greater than or equal to 50 will have a classical shape that matches a near perfect sphere.  Therefore, if the Strong Nuclear Force and Gravity are the same, then the Solutions for the Schrodinger Wave Equation with a Nuclear Gravitation Field proportional to a 1/r2 function should result in the applicable Proton and Neutron Energy Levels filling identically to the filling of the Electron Energy Levels for the applicable energy levels.

  • The fill for Protons in the Sixth Energy Level and Protons in the Seventh Energy Level are identical for the fill for Electrons in the Sixth Energy Level and the fill for the Electrons in the Seventh Energy Level at a change of 32 for each

  • The projected fill for Protons in the Eighth Energy Level is Identical for the projected fill of Electrons in the Eighth Energy Level at a change of 50 for each

  • The fill for Neutrons in the Sixth Energy Level is identical for the fill for Electrons in the Sixth Energy Level at a change of 32 for each

The fill of Neutrons for the Seventh Energy Level at a change of 44 deviates from the Electrons and Protons for the Seventh Energy Level at a change of 32.  The fill of Neutrons for the Eighth Energy Level at a change of 58 deviates from the projected fill of Electrons and Protons for the Eighth Energy Level at a change of 50.  The Neutron Energy Level fill deviations is suspected to be the result of the strong accumulated Coulombic Repulsion Force tending to tear the nucleus apart.  The need for additional Neutrons in the Nucleus is required to raise the Strong Nuclear Force to hold the Nucleus together.  Note that for the heavier elements, the Neutron to Proton ratio rises from a 1 to 1 ratio for Light Nuclei to a 3 to 2 ratio for Heavy Nuclei.  For stable Nuclei of the Heavier Elements, Neutrons fill the next higher energy level than the Protons fill.  For example, the Nucleus for Lead-208 (82Pb208), 82 Protons fill Six Energy Levels and 126 Neutrons fill Seven Energy Levels.  All currently known Elements beyond Element 83, Bismuth-209, (83Bi209), are observed to be radioactive – not stable.




Chart of the Nuclides

Table of the Nuclides

Z = Number of Protons = Vertical Axis     N = Number of Neutrons = Horizontal Axis

Reference: http://www.nndc.bnl.gov/chart/



When the number of Protons and Neutrons in the Nucleus each number 50 or greater, the classical shape of the Nucleus is a near perfect sphere.  Proton Energy Levels Six through Eight fill in identical manner to Electron Energy Levels Six through Eight.  Neutron Energy Level Six fills in identical manner to Electron Energy Level Six.  The deviation for Neutron Energy Levels above Level Six can be accounted for by the need to raise the Nuclear Gravitation Field intensity to overcome the rising Coulombic Repulsion Force tending to break the Nucleus apart.  It is safe to conclude that when the classical shape of the Nucleus is a near perfect sphere, then the Nuclear Gravitation Field Potential Function is proportional to 1/r2 and consistent with Newton’s Law of Gravity.




Nuclear Gravitation Field Required to Overcome Nuclear Electric Field Repulsion

Let’s assume we wanted to fuse a Proton (Hydrogen-1 Nucleus) to a Tritium (Helium-3) Nucleus.  Let’s determine what the minimum Nuclear Gravitation Field would be required to overcome the Nuclear Electric Field repulsive force present at the surface of the Tritium Nucleus.  The Nuclear Electric Field repulsive force must be determined for a Proton next to a Tritium Nucleus.  We will assume the Proton is placed next to the Proton in the Tritium Nucleus.  The radius, r, of each Proton is equal to 1.2 x 10-15 meter, therefore, the distance between the center of one Proton and the center of the other Proton is twice the radius of each Proton or 2.4 x 10-15 meter.  Only the Protons sense a repulsive force because the Neutrons in the Tritium Nucleus are neutral in charge.  The equation for Force between electrically charged particles is as follows:

Electric Field Repulsion Force

q1 is the charge of the Proton in the Tritium Nucleus; q2 is the charge of the Proton placed next to the Tritium Nucleus to establish the repulsive force, F; ∈0 is the permittivity of the Electric Field in free space; and r is the distance between the centers of each of the Protons.  We also know that the classical physics calculation for force acting on a body, in this case the Tritium Nucleus acting upon the Proton, is as follows:

Repulsion Force on Proton

Where F is Force, mp is the mass of a proton, and a is the acceleration of the Proton.  Using both equations, above, the acceleration sensed by the Proton being repelled by the Tritium Nucleus can be determined by solving for acceleration, a, as follows:

Proton Acceleration - Electric Field Repulsion


Proton Acceleration Calculation


Proton Acceleration - meters/sec<SUP>2</SU>

Divide the acceleration field, a, by the acceleration of gravity on Earth, 9.81 meters/sec2, to obtain the acceleration field in g’s.

Proton Acceleration - Earth g’s

The value of acceleration, a, represents the repulsive electric field established by the Tritium Nucleus on the Proton of interest.  In order to overcome this repulsive field, the minimum required attractive acceleration field required by the Strong Nuclear Force to overcome the Electric Field repulsion of the proton from the Tritium Nucleus must be at least 2.441 x 1027g.

In order to determine whether or not the Nuclear Gravitation Field at the surface of the nucleus has an intensity great enough to result in observable General Relativistic effects, one must compare the Nuclear Gravitation Field at the surface of the nucleus to the gravitational field in the vicinity of the Sun’s surface and in the vicinity of the surface of a Neutron Star.  Gravitational fields in the vicinity of stars are more than intense enough for significant General Relativistic effects to be observed.  The Neutron Star was selected as one of the cases to study because the density of the nucleus, which is made up of protons and neutrons, is very close to the density of a Neutron Star.  A Neutron Star typically contains the mass approximately that of our Sun, however, the matter is concentrated into a spherical volume with a diameter of about 10 miles or 16 kilometers.  The radius of a Neutron star is about 5 miles or 8 kilometers.  The following figure illustrates the relative size of the Earth to the size of a White Dwarf star and a Neutron star.



Comparative Sizes of the Earth,
a Typical White Dwarf Star,
and a Typical Neutron Star

The Earth, a White Dwarf Star, and a Neutron Star

Reference:  “The Life and Death of Stars,” by Donald A. Cooke, Page 131, Figure 8.12


Let’s determine the gravitational field at the surface of a Neutron Star.  The Neutron Star is assumed to contain the same mass as the Sun, therefore, the mass of the Neutron Star, “MNeutron Star,” is equal to 1.99×1030 kg. The Neutron Star’s radius, which is defined as “RNeutron Star,” is about 5 miles equal to about 8 km or 8.0×10 meters.  The gravitational field of a Neutron Star, which is represented by the gravitational acceleration at the star’s surface, is calculated below:

Neutron Star Gravitational Field

aNeutron Star = 2.07×1012N-kg-1 = 2.07×1012 meters/second2


To determine the “g-force” at the Neutron Star’s surface, the gravitational field of the Neutron Star must be normalized relative to Earth’s gravitational field in the same manner used to calculate the g-force at the Sun’s surface.  Earth’s gravitational field is 1g.  The ratio of the acceleration of gravity on the Neutron Star’s surface to the acceleration of gravity on the Earth’s surface represents the g-force on the Neutron Star’s surface.  The g-force on the Neutron Star’s surface is calculated as follows:


Neutron Star Surface Gravity g-Force


Albert Einstein’s General Relativity Theory was confirmed in 1919 when a total eclipse of the Sun occurred.  With the Sun being blocked out by the Moon, a star directly behind the Sun could be seen on either side of the Sun due to the acceleration of light around the Sun.  The gravitational field of the Sun at 27.8g can warp or bend Space-Time.  The gravitational field of a Neutron Star, at 2.10×1011g, has an intensity of nearly a billion times greater than the Sun’s gravitational field.  The Neutron Star’s gravitational field will result in substantial “Space-Time Compression.” The minimum gravitational field intensity at the surface of the Tritium Nucleus was calculated to be
1.403 x 1028g, a value nearly 17 decades more intense than the value calculated for a Neutron Star.  The General Relativistic effects next to the Nucleus of the Atom must be considered.




General Relativity and Space-Time Compression

Space-Time Compression:

What is Space-Time Compression and how is it related to Special Relativity and General Relativity?  Space-Time Compression is the relativistic effect of reducing the measured distance and light travel-time between two points in space as a result of the presence of either:

  1. Two or more inertial reference frames where relativistic velocities (velocities of a significant fraction of the velocity of light) between the reference frames are involved – Special Relativity.  A spacecraft traveling at 0.98c (98% of the velocity of light) relative to Earth is an example of two relativistic inertial reference frames.

  2. Accelerated reference frames defined by either the physical acceleration, or change in velocity, of an object of interest relative to a point of reference in Space-Time in the presence of an acceleration field – General Relativity.  An example of an accelerated reference frame is that of the Sun’s gravitational field, equal to 27.8g, near the Solar surface.  Space-Time Compression occurs because of the invariance of the measured, or observed, velocity of light:  186,300 miles/sec = 299,750 km/sec, independent what inertial or accelerated reference frame the observer exists within or externally observes from.

  3. Inertial Reference Frames:

    One way to quantitatively observe the Space-Time compression effect is to look at the blue right triangle within a quarter circle of unity radius (radius, r = 1) displayed in the figure, below.  The hypotenuse of the triangle is the side of the blue triangle starting from the center of the circle moving diagonally upward and to the right with a length unity, or 1, and equal to the radius of the quarter circle.  The hypotenuse of the blue right triangle represents the velocity of light, c, as a fraction of the velocity of light, c, or c/c = 1.

    Trigonometric Identities and Relationship to Relativity

    Pythagorean Theorem


    The vertical side of the blue right triangle is the ratio of the velocity of the spacecraft to that of the velocity of light, or v/c and is the “opposite side” from the angle formed by the hypotenuse of the blue right triangle, or the radius of the quarter circle, and the horizontal leg of the blue right triangle.  That angle is represented by the Greek letter θ (Theta).  The angle θ spans from 0° to 90°.  The length of the vertical side of the blue right triangle is equal to sinθ, therefore, v/c = sinθ.  The horizontal side of the blue right triangle represents the amount of Space-Time Compression that reduces the distance between two points in Space-Time (length contraction) and reduces the time it takes light to travel between the two points (time dilation) based on the velocity of the spacecraft relative to the velocity of light.  The length of the horizontal side of the blue right triangle is equal to cosθ.  Using the Pythagorean Theorem, we can solve for cosθ.

    sin2θ  + cos2θ  =  1

    v/c  =  sinθ

    Substitute v/c for sinθ, then solve for cosθ

    (v/c)2  +  cos2θ  =  1

    cos2θ  =  1  –  (v/c)2

    cosθ  =  [1  –  (v/c)2]1/2

    1/cosθ  =  secθ  =  1/[1  –  (v/c)2]1/2  =  “Space-Time Compression Factor”

    The “Space-Time Compression Factor” is the multiplicative inverse of the value of length of the horizontal side of the blue right triangle equal to 1/cosθ, or secθ, and is designated by the Greek Letter γ (gamma).  The length contraction and time dilation can be determined by solving for the length of the horizontal side of the triangle using the Pythagorean Theorem.  Therefore, the distance between the Earth and the star of interest 10 light-years away as measured by the observer in the spacecraft moving at a velocity, v, is defined as follows:

    d  =  d0 [1  –  (v/c)2]1/2

    Where d0 is the measured distance to the star of interest in “Normal Space-Time” or “Uncompressed Space-Time” as measured by the observer on the Earth and d is the “Compressed Space-Time” distance (or length contracted distance) as measured by the observer in the spacecraft moving at a velocity, v.  The reduction of time for light to travel the distance between the star of interest and spacecraft in the vicinity of Earth is affected in the same manner by “Space-Time Compression.”  Einstein noted the equivalence of space and time, hence the term Space-Time is used.  The relationship of space and time is as follows:

    d  =  ct

    d represents distance, c represents the velocity of light, and t represents elapsed time.  Substituting ct for d and ct0 for d0, the distance compression equation can become a time dilation equation.

    ct  =  ct0 [1  –  (v/c)2]

    Therefore:   t  =  t0 [1  –  (v/c)2]1/2

    The following table provides the values for length contraction and “Space-Time Compression Factor” as a function of velocity relative to the velocity of light, c = 299,750 km/sec = 186,300 miles/sec.


    Velocity and Space-Time Compression



    Angle
    θ
    Degrees

    Measured
    Velocity
    = v = (c)(sinθ)

    v/c = sinθ
    Distance
    (Length)
    Contraction
    or Time Dilation
    Factor = cosθ
    = [1 – (v/c)2]1/2
    Space-Time
    Compression
    Factor
    = γ = 1/cosθ = secθ

    = 1/[1 – (v/c)2]1/2
    Effective
    Velocity
    = veff = (c)(tanθ)
    = (c)(sinθ/cosθ)

    [veff/c] = tanθ
      0.000 0.000 1.000   1.000   0.000
      2.866 0.050 0.999   1.001   0.050
      5.739 0.100 0.995   1.005   0.101
      8.627 0.150 0.989   1.011   0.152
    11.537 0.200 0.980   1.021   0.204
    14.478 0.250 0.968   1.033   0.258
    17.458 0.300 0.954   1.048   0.314
    20.487 0.350 0.937   1.068   0.374
    23.578 0.400 0.917   1.091   0.436
    26.744 0.450 0.893   1.120   0.504
    30.000 0.500 0.866   1.155   0.577
    33.367 0.550 0.835   1.197   0.659
    36.870 0.600 0.800   1.250   0.750
    40.542 0.650 0.760   1.316   0.855
    44.427 0.700 0.714   1.400   0.980
    45.000 0.707 0.707   1.414   1.000
    48.590 0.750 0.661   1.512   1.134
    53.130 0.800 0.600   1.667   1.333
    58.212 0.850 0.527   1.898   1.614
    60.000 0.866 0.500   2.000   1.732
    64.158 0.900 0.436   2.294   2.065
    71.805 0.950 0.312   3.203   3.042
    73.739 0.960 0.280   3.571   3.428
    75.930 0.970 0.243   4.113   3.990
    78.522 0.980 0.199   5.025   4.925
    81.890 0.990 0.141   7.470   7.018
    84.268 0.995 0.100 10.013   9.962
    85.000 0.996 0.087 11.474   11.430
    85.561 0.997 0.077 12.920   12.882
    86.376 0.998 0.063 15.819   15.789
    87.437 0.999 0.045 22.366   22.340


    As indicated in the table, above, measured velocities do not contribute significantly to the “Space-Time Compression” effect unless the measured velocity is a significant fraction of the the velocity of light, c.  At a measured velocity of 0.995c, the “Space-Time Compression Factor” is just above 10 and at a measured velocity of 0.999c, the “Space-Time Compression Factor” is just under 22.4.

    Table “Velocity and Space-Time Compression” introduces the concept of effective velocity.  When the spacecraft is traveling at a measured velocity of 0.707c, the effective velocity, veff, of the spacecraft is 1.000c or the speed of light, c.  Although the spacecraft only has a measured velocity as 0.707c, the length contraction along the line of travel is reduced to 0.707 (or 70.7%) of the original distance (which represents a “Space-Time Compression Factor” equal to 1.414), therefore, the time to travel the uncompressed distance (which is a known quantity) is equal to the time it would take light to travel the uncompressed distance.

    The evaluation, above, discusses Space-Time Compression as a function of a constant relativistic velocity, therefore is an evaluation of a inertial reference frame.  General Relativity includes the evaluation of accelerated reference frames.  Gravity fields establish accelerated reference frames because gravity accelerates light, electric fields, and magnetic fields.  Therefore, gravity fields generate the Compressed Space-Time due to the acceleration of light, electric fields, and magnetic fields.  Since the speed of light will always be measured as propagating at a constant speed of 2.9975 x 108 meters/sec, the distance traveled is reduced by the Space-Time Compression Factor.  Light, Electric Fields, and Magnetic Fields propagate based upon Compressed Space-Time.




    General Relativity – Accelerated Reference Frames and Relation to Nuclear Gravitation Field

    We determined that the minimum Nuclear Gravitation Field acceleration has to be at least 1.403 x 1028g, therefore, the effects of General Relativity must be considered.  Gravity fields propagate based upon Uncompressed Space-Time.  In order to “see” or “measure” the Nuclear Gravitation Field propagating outward from the Nucleus omnidirectional in spherical symmetry dropping in intensity 1/r2 consistent with Newton’s Law of Gravity, we would have to measure the field intensity in Uncompressed Space-Time.  However, we live in the Compressed Space-Time reference frame, therefore, we see events in Compressed Space-Time.  As previously discussed, gravity fields generate the Compressed Space-Time due to the acceleration of light, electric fields, and magnetic fields.  Light, Electric Fields, and Magnetic Fields propagate based upon Compressed Space-Time.

    Table “Accelerated Reference Frame Space-Time Compression Due to Gravity Field,” below, determines the Uncompressed Space-Time acceleration of light as a function of the intensity of various gravity fields, determines the reduction in the distance traveled by light as observed in Compressed Space-Time, and the resulting Space-Time Compression Factors.  Let’s assume the gravitational field next to the nucleus of the atom was equal to 2.9975 x 108 meters/sec2.  If light was subjected to this acceleration field, in one second the speed of light would be doubled to 5.9950 x 108 meters/sec equal to the speed of light in Uncompressed Space-Time.  Since the speed of light in free space is invariant with respect to the reference frame of the observer, the speed of light remains at 2.9975 x 108 meters/sec.  Therefore, the distance traveled by light in Compressed Space-Time must be reduced to half the Uncompressed Space-Time distance as indicated by the first entry highlighted in red in Table, “Accelerated Reference Frame Space-Time Compression Due to Gravity Field,” below.



    Accelerated Reference Frame Space-Time Compression
    Due to Gravity Field

    Gravity
    Acceleration
    in g
    Gravity
    Acceleration
    (meters/sec2)
    Final Speed of Light
    in Uncompressed Space-Time
    After 1 Second
    (meters/sec)
    Length Reduction Due to
    Space-Time Compression
    = cosθ
    arccosθ Radians arccosθ Degrees Space-Time
    Compression Factor
    = 1/cosθ = secθ
    0 0.00 2.99750E+08 1.00000 0.000000 0.00000 1.00000
    1 9.81 2.99750E+08 1.00000 0.000256 0.01466 1.00000
    2 19.62 2.99750E+08 1.00000 0.000362 0.02073 1.00000
    3 29.43 2.99750E+08 1.00000 0.000443 0.02539 1.00000
    4 39.24 2.99750E+08 1.00000 0.000512 0.02932 1.00000
    5 49.05 2.99750E+08 1.00000 0.000572 0.03278 1.00000
    6 58.86 2.99750E+08 1.00000 0.000627 0.03591 1.00000
    7 68.67 2.99750E+08 1.00000 0.000677 0.03878 1.00000
    8 78.48 2.99750E+08 1.00000 0.000724 0.04146 1.00000
    9 88.29 2.99750E+08 1.00000 0.000768 0.04398 1.00000
    10 98.10 2.99750E+08 1.00000 0.000809 0.04635 1.00000
    20 196.20 2.99750E+08 1.00000 0.001144 0.06556 1.00000
    50 490.50 2.99750E+08 1.00000 0.001809 0.10365 1.00000
    100 981 2.99751E+08 1.00000 0.002558 0.14659 1.00000
    200 1962 2.99752E+08 0.99999 0.003618 0.20730 1.00001
    500 4905 2.99755E+08 0.99998 0.005721 0.32777 1.00002
    1000 9810 2.99760E+08 0.99997 0.008090 0.46354 1.00003
    2000 19620 2.99770E+08 0.99993 0.011441 0.65553 1.00007
    5000 49050 2.99799E+08 0.99984 0.018089 1.03645 1.00016
    10000 98100 2.99848E+08 0.99967 0.025581 1.46566 1.00033
    20000 196200 2.99946E+08 0.99935 0.036171 2.07247 1.00065
    50000 49050 2.99799E+08 0.99984 0.018089 1.03645 1.00016
    100000 981000 3.00241E+08 0.99674 0.080794 4.62915 1.00327
    200000 1.96200E+06 3.01712E+08 0.99350 0.114105 6.53772 1.00655
    500000 4.90500E+06 3.04655E+08 0.98390 0.179686 10.29526 1.01636
    1.000E+06 9.81000E+06 3.09560E+08 0.96831 0.1252424 14.46283 1.03273
    2.000E+06 1.96200E+07 3.19370E+08 0.93857 0.352344 20.18780 1.06545
    5.000E+06 4.90500E+07 3.48800E+08 0.85938 0.536750 30.75352 1.16364
    1.000E+07 9.81000E+07 3.97850E+08 0.75342 0.717541 41.11209 1.32727
    2.000E+07 1.96200E+08 4.95950E+08 0.60440 0.921789 52.81464 1.65455
    3.056E+07 2.99750E+08 5.99500E+08 0.500000 1.047198 60.0000 2.00000
    5.000E+07 4.90500E+08 7.90250E+08 0.37931 1.181746 67.70903 2.63636
    1.000E+08 9.81000E+08 1.28075E+09 0.23404 1.334563 76.46481 4.27273
    2.000E+08 1.96200E+09 2.26175E+09 0.13253 1.437875 82.38418 7.54545
    5.000E+08 4.90500E+09 5.20475E+09 0.05759 1.513173 86.69842 17.36364
    1.000E+09 9.81000E+09 1.01098E+10 0.02965 1.541142 88.30095 33.72727
    2.000E+09 1.96200E+10 1.99198E+10 0.01505 1.555748 89.13779 66.45455
    5.000E+09 4.90500E+10 4.93498E+10 0.00607 1.564722 89.65198 164.63636
    1.000E+10 9.81000E+10 9.83998E+10 0.00305 1.567750 89.82546 328.27273
    2.000E+10 1.96200E+11 1.96500E+11 0.00153 1.569271 89.91260 655.54545
    5.000E+10 4.90500E+11 4.90800E+11 0.00607 1.570186 89.96501 1637.36364
    1.000E+11 9.81000E+11 9.81300E+11 0.00031 1.570491 89.98250 3273.72727
    2.000E+11 1.96200E+12 1.96230E+12 0.00015 1.570644 89.99125 6546.45455
    5.000E+11 4.90500E+12 4.90530E+12 0.00006 1.570735 89.99650 16364.63636
    1.000E+12 9.81000E+12 9.81030E+12 0.00003 1.570766 89.99825 32728.27273
    2.000E+12 1.96200E+13 1.96203E+13 0.00002 1.570781 89.99912 65455.54545
    5.000E+12 4.90500E+13 4.90503E+13 0.00001 1.570790 89.99965 1.63636E+05
    1.000E+13 9.81000E+13 9.81003E+13 0.00000 1.570793 89.99982 3.27274E+05
    2.000E+13 1.96200E+14 1.96200E+14 0.00000 1.570795 89.99991 6.54546E+05
    5.000E+13 4.90500E+14 4.90500E+14 0.00000 1.570796 89.99996 1.63636E+06
    1.000E+14 9.81000E+14 9.81000E+14 0.00000 1.570796 89.99998 3.27273E+06
    2.000E+14 1.96200E+15 1.96200E+15 0.00000 1.570796 89.99999 6.54546E+06
    5.000E+14 4.90500E+15 4.90500E+15 0.00000 1.570796 90.00000 1.63636E+07
    1.000E+15 9.81000E+15 9.81000E+15 0.00000 1.570796 90.00000 3.27273E+07
    2.000E+15 1.96200E+16 1.96200E+16 0.00000 1.570796 90.00000 6.54546E+07
    5.000E+15 4.90500E+16 4.90500E+16 0.00000 1.570796 90.00000 1.63636E+08
    1.000E+16 9.81000E+16 9.81000E+16 0.00000 1.570796 90.00000 3.27273E+08
    2.000E+16 1.96200E+17 1.96200E+17 0.00000 1.570796 90.00000 6.54546E+08
    5.000E+16 4.90500E+17 4.90500E+17 0.00000 1.570796 90.00000 1.63636E+09
    1.000E+17 9.81000E+17 9.81000E+17 0.00000 1.570796 90.00000 3.27273E+09
    2.000E+17 1.96200E+18 1.96200E+18 0.00000 1.570796 90.00000 6.54546E+09
    5.000E+17 4.90500E+18 4.90500E+18 0.00000 1.570796 90.00000 1.63636E+10
    1.000E+18 9.81000E+18 9.81000E+18 0.00000 1.570796 90.00000 3.27273E+10
    2.000E+18 1.96200E+19 1.96200E+19 0.00000 1.570796 90.00000 6.54546E+10
    5.000E+18 4.90500E+19 4.90500E+19 0.00000 1.570796 90.00000 1.63636E+11
    1.000E+19 9.81000E+19 9.81000E+19 0.00000 1.570796 90.00000 3.27273E+11
    2.000E+19 1.96200E+20 1.96200E+20 0.00000 1.570796 90.00000 6.54546E+11
    5.000E+19 4.90500E+20 4.90500E+20 0.00000 1.570796 90.00000 1.63636E+12
    1.000E+20 9.81000E+20 9.81000E+20 0.00000 1.570796 90.00000 3.27273E+12
    2.000E+20 1.96200E+21 1.96200E+21 0.00000 1.570796 90.00000 6.54546E+12
    5.000E+20 4.90500E+21 4.90500E+21 0.00000 1.570796 90.00000 1.63636E+13
    1.000E+21 9.81000E+21 9.81000E+21 0.00000 1.570796 90.00000 3.27273E+13
    2.000E+21 1.96200E+22 1.96200E+22 0.00000 1.570796 90.00000 6.54546E+13
    5.000E+21 4.90500E+22 4.90500E+22 0.00000 1.570796 90.00000 1.63636E+14
    1.000E+22 9.81000E+22 9.81000E+22 0.00000 1.570796 90.00000 3.27273E+14
    2.000E+22 1.96200E+23 1.96200E+23 0.00000 1.570796 90.00000 6.54546E+14
    5.000E+22 4.90500E+23 4.90500E+23 0.00000 1.570796 90.00000 1.63636E+15
    1.000E+23 9.81000E+23 9.81000E+23 0.00000 1.570796 90.00000 3.27273E+15
    2.000E+23 1.96200E+24 1.96200E+24 0.00000 1.570796 90.00000 6.54546E+15
    5.000E+23 4.90500E+24 4.90500E+24 0.00000 1.570796 90.00000 1.63636E+16
    1.000E+24 9.81000E+24 9.81000E+24 0.00000 1.570796 90.00000 3.27273E+16
    2.000E+24 1.96200E+25 1.96200E+25 0.00000 1.570796 90.00000 6.54546E+16
    5.000E+24 4.90500E+25 4.90500E+25 0.00000 1.570796 90.00000 1.63636E+17
    1.000E+25 9.81000E+25 9.81000E+25 0.00000 1.570796 90.00000 3.27273E+17
    2.000E+25 1.96200E+26 1.96200E+26 0.00000 1.570796 90.00000 6.54546E+17
    5.000E+25 4.90500E+26 4.90500E+26 0.00000 1.570796 90.00000 1.63636E+18
    1.000E+26 9.81000E+26 9.81000E+26 0.00000 1.570796 90.00000 3.27273E+18
    2.000E+26 1.96200E+27 1.96200E+27 0.00000 1.570796 90.00000 6.54546E+18
    5.000E+26 4.90500E+27 4.90500E+27 0.00000 1.570796 90.00000 1.63636E+19
    1.000E+27 9.81000E+27 9.81000E+27 0.00000 1.570796 90.00000 3.27273E+19
    2.000E+27 1.96200E+28 1.96200E+28 0.00000 1.570796 90.00000 6.54546E+19
    2.441E+27 2.39462E+28 2.39462E+28 0.00000 1.570796 90.00000 7.98873E+19
    5.000E+27 4.90500E+28 4.90500E+28 0.00000 1.570796 90.00000 1.63636E+20
    1.000E+28 9.81000E+28 9.81000E+28 0.00000 1.570796 90.00000 3.27273E+20
    2.000E+28 1.96200E+29 1.96200E+29 0.00000 1.570796 90.00000 6.54546E+20
    5.000E+28 4.90500E+29 4.90500E+29 0.00000 1.570796 90.00000 1.63636E+21
    1.000E+29 9.81000E+29 9.81000E+29 0.00000 1.570796 90.00000 3.27273E+21
    2.000E+29 1.96200E+30 1.96200E+30 0.00000 1.570796 90.00000 6.54546E+21
    5.000E+29 4.90500E+30 4.90500E+30 0.00000 1.570796 90.00000 1.63636E+22
    1.000E+30 9.81000E+30 9.81000E+30 0.00000 1.570796 90.00000 3.27273E+22


    From Table “Accelerated Reference Frame Space-Time Compression Due to Gravity Field,” we find that the Space-Time Compressed distance that light travels is essentially a zero distance (at five significant digits} for any gravity field acceleration field greater than or equal to
    1.00 x 1013g.  The minimum gravitational acceleration field required to overcome the Coulombic Repulsion of two protons in a nucleus at
    1.403 x 1028g results in Space-Time Compression to a distance of zero because the Space-Time Compression Factor equals 4.5902 x 1020 as indicated by the second entry highlighted in red in Table “Accelerated Reference Frame Space-Time Compression Due to Gravity Field.”  This is the very reason the Strong Nuclear Force is observed to vanish immediately outside the surface of nucleus of the atom.  This observed characteristic of the Strong Nuclear Force can only exist if the Strong Nuclear Force provides an acceleration field to accelerate light.  Therefore, the Strong Nuclear Force must be Gravity.

    The Nuclear Gravitation Field next to the Tritium Nucleus rivals the field near a Neutron Star or Black Hole.  The Nuclear Gravitation Field intensity drops about 27.5 decades just outside the Nucleus before any gravity field can be “seen” or “measured” propagating outward from the Nucleus because we observe the Nuclear Gravitation Field in a Compressed Space-Time reference frame.  The Space-Time Compression occurring next to the Nucleus is so significant that if we could view the Atom in Uncompressed Space Time, the Electron Cloud would be one meter away from the Nucleus.

    Since the atom is at least 30,000 (3.0 x 104) times larger than the nucleus, the quantized Nuclear Gravitation Field intensity drops an additional 9 decades (4.5 x 2 decades) as it passes through the electron cloud of the atom to the outside of the atom due to Nuclear Gravitation Field intensity dropping 1/r2.  The final quantized Nuclear Gravitation Field intensity is on the order of 1.0 x 10-8g or less, extremely feeble.  This value appears to be too large to be gravity at this value.  One must realize that we are observing the Nuclear Gravitation Field intensity which is Quantized Gravity because the field is associated with a specific energy level spectrum.


    Nuclear Gravitation Field and
    Nuclear Electric Field Outside Nucleus

    Nuclear Gravity Field and Nuclear Electric Field


    The Nuclear Gravitation Field is stronger than the Nuclear Electric Field at the Nuclear Surface in order to hold the nucleons in the Nucleus together.  Nuclear Gravitation Field intensity outside the Electron cloud is less than 1.0 x 10-35 the intensity of Nuclear Electric Field outside the Electron cloud.  Space-Time Compression is directly proportional to the intensity of the Nuclear Gravitation Field.

    Quantized gravity will be on the order of 1.0 x 108 to 1.0 x 109 times greater than the average gravity measured outside the electron cloud of the Atom.  Therefore, gravity leaving the electron cloud will be 1.0 x 10-16g or less.  Quantized Gravity is analogous to the Classical Physics and Quantum Mechanical evaluation of Light and how the Photo-Electric Effect occurs.


    Quantized Light and Photo-Electric Effect Analogous to Quantized Gravity – Liberating Outer Electron from Sodium Atom:

    In order to compare Classical Physics to Quantum Mechanics, the energy of light shining on a surface must be assumed to be a continuous distribution.  In other words, light energy is assumed neither to be discrete nor quantized.  Based upon that assumption, the amount of energy available to be absorbed by an electron can be determined.  That calculated value will then be compared to the results of Millikan’s “Photoelectric Effect” experiments.  For this calculation, a 100 watt (Joules/second) orange light source with a wavelength of 6000 Angstroms is directed onto a square plate of Sodium 0.1 meter by 0.1 meter.  The surface area of the square Sodium plate is 0.01 meter2.  It is assumed that all the light emitting from the orange light source is directed onto the Sodium plate.  The atomic radius of the neutral Sodium atom is 2.23 Angstroms which is equal to 2.23×10-10 meter.

    The diameter of the Sodium atom is twice the radius or 4.46 Angstroms equal to 4.46×10-10 meter.  It now must be determined how many Sodium atoms can fill the square surface of the Sodium plate assuming only the top layer of Sodium atoms (one Sodium atom deep).  Although the Sodium atoms are spheres, this calculation will assume that they are square.  The side of the “square Sodium atom” has the same length as the diameter of the spherical atom.  A spherical atom of Sodium will fit into each of the theoretical “square Sodium atoms” that make up the top layer of Sodium atoms on the square plate.  Therefore, each Sodium atom will take up the following surface area on the plate:

    Area of Sodium Atom = (4.46×10-10 meter)×(4.46×10-10 meter) = 1.989×10-19 meter2

    Number of Sodium Atoms on Surface of Plate  =  Area of Plate divided by Area of Sodium Atom

    Number of Sodium Atoms on Surface of Plate = (0.01 meter2)/(1.989×10-19 meter2)

    Number of Sodium Atoms on Surface of Plate  =  5.027×1016 Sodium Atoms

    In one second, the Sodium plate surface absorbs 100 Joules of energy.  1 electron volt (eV) is equal to 1.6022×10-19 Joules.  The next step is to calculate the amount of energy imparted to one Sodium atom in eV assuming a continuous even distribution of light energy across the Sodium plate.  The intent here is to perform a comparison of the values of the classical electron absorption energy to the Quantum Mechanical electron absorbed energy as provided in Figure “Sodium Plate Photo-Electric Effect Results,” below.


    Photo-Electric Effect on Sodium Plate

    Photoelectric Effect on Sodium Plate

    Planck Equation


    Sodium Plate Photo-Electric Effect Results

    Sodium Plate Photo-Electric Effect Results Chart 1

    odium Plate Photo-Electric Effect Results Chart 2

    Reference:  http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/mod2.html


    Energy Imparted to 1 Sodium Atom (ENa)  =  Total Energy Imparted to Plate divided by Number of Sodium Atoms 

    =  5.027 x 1016 Na-atoms


    Energy Imparted to One Sodium Atom


    Each Sodium atom is receiving 1.242×104 eV of energy each second.  The light is only illuminating one side of the Sodium atom because it is coming from one direction, therefore, as the spherical Sodium atom is considered, half the surface area of the Sodium atom is illuminated by the light.  The total surface area of a spherical Sodium Atom is calculated as follows:



    Surface Area of Sodium Atom


    The illuminated portion of the sphere of the Sodium atom is equal to half the value calculated, above, or 3.124×10-19 meter2.  In actuality, from a classical point of view, the size of the Sodium Atom is not important or required to determine how much light energy the electron will receive from the from the light source based on classical physics.  The size and exposed surface area of the electron is all that is required to complete this calculation.  In this calculation it is assumed that the density of an electron is the same as the density of a proton or neutron.  The mass of a proton, neutron, or electron is proportional to the cube of its radius or its diameter.  The surface area of either the proton, the neutron, or the electron is proportional to the cube root of its volume squared.  The surface area of the electron, then, should be proportional to the surface area of a proton or neutron by the ratio of its mass to the mass of a proton or neutron to the 2/3 power.  The diameter of a proton or neutron is about 1.0×10-15 meter.  The radius of a proton or neutron is equal to half the diameter or about 0.5×10-15 meter.  The total surface area of either a proton or neutron is calculated below:


    Surface Area of a Nucleon


    Since the light is shining from one direction, the light only illuminates half of the surface area of either a proton or neutron.  Therefore, the illuminated surface area of a proton or neutron is equal to 1.571×10-30 meter2.

    The electron mass is only 1/1840 that of the proton or neutron.  Therefore, the surface area of an electron will be equal to the surface area of a proton or neutron multiplied by the cube root of 1/1840 squared.  The surface area of an electron can be calculated based upon the surface area of a proton or neutron (nucleon) as follows:


    Surface Area of an Electron


    Asurface-electron  =  2.092×10-32 meter2

    Since the light is shining from one direction, the light only illuminates half of the surface area of the electron.  Therefore, the illuminated surface area of the electron is equal to 1.046×10-32 meter2.

    The calculated amount of energy by the classical physics illumination from the light source received by the Sodium’s electron is as follows:


    Classical Physics Energy Received by Electron from Light Source


    The Classical Physics analysis predicts the electron only receives 4.163×10-10 eV of light energy per second.  The amount of energy required to liberate an electron from the Sodium atom is on the order of 0.5 eV.  The Classical Physics analysis result indicates that it is impossible for the photoelectric effect to ever take place.  Quantum Mechanics predicts that the electron can absorb energies on the order of 0.5 eV or greater and can be liberated from the Sodium atom because the incoming light energy propagates in discrete packets or quanta of energy rather than as a continuous distribution of energy.  The vast difference in magnitude of the energy that the electron would absorb based upon Classical Physics to the amount of the energy the electron will absorb by Quantum Mechanics is extremely important.  It is quite reasonable to assume that this significant relative difference in magnitude of field intensity can also apply to the intensity of the Nuclear Gravitation Field.  The Nuclear Gravitation Field would be much more intense if it was a discrete function rather than a continuous function.  Figure “Sodium Plate Photo-Electric Effect Results,” above, states the electron Kinetic Energy is about 0.5 eV when it absorbs light at a wavelength of 6000 Angstroms.  The electron must absorb a minimum amount of “Ionization Energy” to remove it from the Sodium atom before it obtains any Kinetic Energy.  To be conservative, this calculation assumes the Ionization Energy of the electron in the 3s orbital of the Sodium atom to be equal to zero.  The ratio of the quantized energy absorbed by the electron versus the classical calculated energy absorbed by the electron is as follows:


    Quantum Mechanical Electron Energy to Classical Electron Energy Ratio


    The ratio of the amount of energy absorbed by the electron via Quantized Light, assuming the principles of Quantum Mechanics, versus the amount of energy absorbed by the electron, assuming Classical Physics, is on the order of 1.201×109 times greater or over a billion times greater.  The expectation is that Quantized Gravity would behave similar to Quantized Light, therefore, Quantized Gravity could be expected to have an intensity of 1.0 x 108 to 1.0 x 109 times greater than the average gravity measured outside the electron cloud of the atom.




    Strong Nuclear Force Properties Provide Case for Equivalence to Gravity

    Several properties of the Strong Nuclear Force are observed specifically because the Strong Nuclear Force is Gravity.  The virtual vanishing of the Strong Nuclear Force just outside the Nuclear Surface is the primary indicator the Strong Nuclear Force is Gravity because of the intense Space-Time Compression taking place.  The addition of Neutrons to the Nucleus to boost the Strong Nuclear Force intensity to maintain its intensity above the Nuclear Electric Field intensity within the Nucleus and hold the Nucleus together is directly related to the General Relativistic effect of Gravity.  If the Strong Nuclear Force had nothing to do with Gravity, no such accelerated field would be produced within the Nucleus affecting the propagation of Light, Electric Fields, or Magnetic Fields and Space-Time Compression would be non-existent.  In that case, Protons, alone, would always remain sufficient to overcome the Coulombic Repulsion generated by the Nuclear Electric Field because the Strong Nuclear Force intensity per Proton will always remain above that of the Nuclear Electric Field intensity per Proton.  Without Space-Time Compression occurring within the Nucleus, the Nucleus would remain stable with any number of Protons from one to infinity.  The observed stablity curve for Nuclei require about a 1 to 1 Neutron to Proton ratio for light Nuclei and require about a 3 to 2 Neutron to Proton ratio for heavy Nuclei.  The Strong Nuclear Force (Gravity) propagates based upon Uncompressed Space-Time within and outside the Nucleus and the Nuclear Electric Field propagates based upon Compressed Space-Time within and outside the Nucleus.


    Nuclear Gravitation and Electric Fields Within the Nucleus

    Internal Nucleus Nuclear Gravitation Fields


    Let’ assume the Nucleus has a constant homogeneous mass density and constant homogeneous charge density for simplicity of calculations. . Let’s determine the Strong Nuclear Force acceleration profile without Space-Time Compression and with Space-Time Compression within the Nucleus.  Let’s determine the acceleration field for the Nuclear Electric Field within the Nucleus.  R represents the radius of the Nucleus.  r represents the variable radial position of a Proton being evaluated between the Nuclear Center and the outer radius, R, of the Nucleus, in order to determine the acceleration field profiles.

    Determination of Nuclear Gravitational Field acceleration, gIN, as a function of internal distance from the Center of the Nucleus, r.

    Mass, M, is equal to constant mass density times Volume, ρMass x VIN, as a function of r, radial distance from Center of Nucleus.

    Mass is Function of Density and Volume

    Nuclear Internal Gravity Field vs radial distance from Center of Nucleus

    Substitute Density and Volume for Mass in Nuclear Internal Gravity

    Nuclear Internal Gravity Field Proportional to Radial Distance from Center of Nucleus

    Therefore, the gravitational acceleration inside the Nucleus, gIN, is proportional to r.

    The mass contributing to gIN is only the mass from Center of Nucleus to position r inside the Nucleus.

    However, the gIN calculated previously with linear rise relative to radial distance from the Center of Nucleus, r, is not correct because it assumes classical physics.  The Gravity field internal to the Nucleus is extremely intense and the effects of General Relativity must be considered.  gIN must be evaluated with the effects of Space-Time Compression occurring.  Gravity propagates based upon Uncompressed Space-Time.  Light, Electric Fields, and Magnetic Fields propagate based upon Compressed Space-Time.  We observe the Nucleus of the Atom in our Compressed Space-Time Reference Frame.  gIN must be reevaluated to see how it will behave in Compressed Space-Time.

    The Mass of the Nucleus as a function of density and distance from the Center of the Nucleus is based upon the Compressed Space-Time radial distance, rCST, as indicated by the equation below:

    Mass is Function of Density and Volume in Compressed Space-Time

    The Gravity Field inside the Nucleus, gIN, must be calculated based upon Uncompressed Space-Time radial distance from the Center of the Nucleus, rUST as indicated by the equation below:

    Nuclear Internal Gravity Field - Uncompressed Space-Time radial distance from Center of Nucleus

    Substituting the calculation value for MIN, the resulting equation for calculating gIN is as follows:

    Substitute Density and Volume for Mass in Nuclear Internal Gravity with r-CST and r-UST

    rUST rises faster than rCST and the rate of rise of rUST goes up because the Gravity field intensity rises as a function of rUST resulting in rising Compressed Space-Time.  gIN will no longer rise linearly, it will tend to level off as rUST and rCST rise.  The figure, below, indicates the behavior of gIN-NSTC, Nuclear Internal Gravity Field - No Space-Time Compression present, and gIN-CST, Nuclear Internal Gravity Field - With Space-Time Compression present:

    Internal Nuclear Gravity Field as function of Compressed Space-Time Radial Distance from Center of Nucleus


    Determination of Nuclear Electric Field acceleration, aEF-IN, as a function of internal distance from the Center of the Nucleus, r.

    The charge distribution inside the Nucleus contributing to aEF-IN is only the charge distribution from Center of Nucleus to position r inside the Nucleus.

    Electric Charge is Function of Charge Density and Volume

    Nuclear Internal Electric Field Proton Acceleration

    Substitute Electric Charge Density and Volume for Charge in Nuclear Internal Electric Field

    Nuclear Internal Electric Field Proportional to Radial Distance from Center of Nucleus

    Therefore, the Nuclear Electric Field acceleration field inside the Nucleus, aEF-IN is proportional to r.

    The charge distribution inside the Nucleus contributing to aEF-IN is only the charge distribution from Center of Nucleus to position r inside the Nucleus.

    Figure “Nuclear Field Profiles Within the Nucleus,” below, provides the field profiles as a function of distance r from the Center of the Nucleus to the Nuclear Surface.


    Nuclear Gravitation Field Profiles Within the Nucleus

    Acceleration Fields Inside Nucleus

    NF-NSTC  =  Strong Nuclear Force - No Space-Time Compression
    SNF-WSTC  =  Strong Nuclear Force - (If Gravity) With Space-Time Compression
    NEF-CRP  =  Nuclear Electric Field - Coulombic Repulsion Protons
    Net Nuc Accel Field  =  Net Nuclear Acceleration Field  =  [SNF-WSTC] - [NEF-CRP]


    The profiles of the Acceleration Fields listed, above, within the Nucleus as a function of Atomic Mass are provided in Figure, “Nuclear Gravitation Field and Nuclear Electric Field at Nuclear Surface as Function of Atomic Mass,” below.



    Nuclear Gravitation Field and Nuclear Electric Field at Nuclear Surface as Function of Atomic Mass

    Acceleration Fields at Nuclear Surface as a Function of Atomic Mass

    NF-NSTC  =  Strong Nuclear Force - No Space-Time Compression
    SNF-WSTC  =  Strong Nuclear Force - (If Gravity) With Space-Time Compression
    NEF-CRP  =  Nuclear Electric Field - Coulombic Repulsion Protons
    Net Nuc Accel Field  =  Net Nuclear Acceleration Field  =  [SNF-WSTC] - [NEF-CRP]


    Drop-off of SNF-WSTC results in the apparent “saturation” of the Strong Nuclear Force and has a profile appearance similar to Binding Energy per Nucleon curve.

    Binding Energy Per Nucleon

    Binding Energy Per Nucleon





    Nuclear Gravitation Field and Configuration of Lead-208 and Bismuth-209

    Nucleon Energy Levels
    for Lead (Pb-208) and Bismuth (Bi-209)

    Energy
    Level
    1

    (He)
    2

    (O)
    3

    (Ca)
    4

    (Ni)
    5

    (Sn)
    6

    (Pb)
    7

    (Fl)
    8

    (E164)
    Total
    Protons
    and
    Neutrons
    Protons
    Lead
    (82Pb208)
    Neutrons
    2p


    2n
    6p


    6n
    12p


    12n
    8p


    8n
    22p


    22n
    32p


    32n
     


    44n
      82p


    126n
    Protons
    Bismuth
    (83Bi209)
    Neutrons
    2p


    2n
    6p


    6n
    12p


    12n
    8p


    8n
    22p


    22n
    32p


    32n
    1p


    44n
      83p


    126n

    Reference:  http://atom.kaeri.re.kr/ton/nuc11.html



    The Lead-208 isotope (82Pb208) is a “double magic” Nucleus containing 82 Protons and 126 Neutrons.  For Lead-208, 82 Protons fill Six Energy Levels and 126 Neutrons fill Seven Energy Levels.  The Nuclear Gravitation Field for Lead-208 is relatively strong and Space-Time Compression next to the Nuclear Surface is very significant compared to average stable nuclei.  The Lead Nucleus is also near the apparent limit where the Strong Nuclear Force is able to overcome the Coulombic Repulsion Force and remain a stable nucleus.  The Bismuth-209 isotope (83Bi209) has 83 Protons and 126 Neutrons.  For Bismuth-209, 82 of the 83 Protons fill Six Energy Levels and 126 Neutrons fill Seven Energy Levels.  The 83rd Proton is the lone Proton in Seventh Energy Level.  For all the currently known stable isotopes of Elements, the Bismuth-209 nuclear configuration is unique.  There are no other stable isotopes of Elements on Earth with a similar configuration.  Element 83, Bismuth-209, is the last known stable isotope listed on the Periodic Table of the Elements.  All identified isotopes of Elements beyond Bismuth are radioactive indicating the Coulombic Repulsion Force has become significant enough to affect the Strong Nuclear Force ability to hold those nuclei together.  Radioactive decay occurs to ultimately change the Nuclei to a stable Nucleus.  The lone proton in the Seventh Energy Level of the Bismuth Nucleus is “loosely” held to the Nucleus resulting in the Nuclear Gravitation Field for Bismuth-209 being significantly weaker than the Nuclear Gravitation Field for Lead-208.  The weaker Nuclear Gravitation Field for Bismuth-209 results in the Nuclear Gravitation Field undergoing a significantly lesser amount of Space-Time Compression.  Therefore, the gravity field outside the electron cloud for Bismuth will be greater than what would be determined by Bismuth-209 having an atomic mass of 208.980399 amu (atomic mass units) and Lead-208 having an atomic mass of 207.976652 amu.  Note that the difference in mass between Bismuth-209 and Lead-208 is 1.003747 amu.  The atomic mass of the Hydrogen-1 isotope is 1.007825 amu, therefore, the mass defect to bind the 83rd proton to the Bismuth-209 Nucleus is 0.004078 amu.


    Pb-208 and Bi-209 Nuclear Gravitation Fields within Electron Cloud


    Cavendish Experiments can be performed to demonstrate that Bismuth-209 has a stronger gravitational field beyond that associated with its mass than the gravitational field of Lead-208.  The Cavendish Experiment was used to determine G in Newton’s Law of Gravity equation:

    Newton’s Law of Gravity

    Perform the Cavendish Experiment with Lead-208 to measure its Gravitation Constant GPb.  Perform the Cavendish Experiment with Bismuth-209 to measure its Gravitation Constant GBi.  If the result of performing these Cavendish Experiments results in determining that the value for GBi is greater than the value for GPb, then this result will provide compelling evidence the Strong Nuclear Force and Gravity are one and the same.  The Universal Gravitation Constant is not Universal but specific to every isotope of every Element.  It is related to the Binding Energy Per Nucleon and does not vary much for stable isotopes of Elements with the exception of Lead-208 and Bismuth-209.

    Let’s first look at Newton’s Law of Gravity and the “Universal Gravitation Constant.”  The following passage was extracted from “Physics, Parts I and II,” by David Halliday and Robert Resnick, pages 348 to 349.  This passage discusses Lord Cavendish's Experiment designed to measure the Universal Gravitation Constant:

    To determine the value of G it is necessary to measure the force of attraction between two known masses.  The first accurate measurement was made by Lord Cavendish in 1798.  Significant improvements were made by Poynting and Boys in the nineteenth century.  The present accepted value of G is 6.6726x10-11 Newton-meter2/kg2, accurate to about 0.0005x10-11 Newton-meter2/kg2.  In the British Engineering System this value is 3.436x10-8 lb-ft2/slug2.

    The constant G can be determined by the maximum deflection method illustrated in the Figure, “Cavendish Experiment,” below.  Two small balls, each of mass m, are attached to the ends of a light rod.  This rigid “dumbbell” is suspended, with its axis horizontal, by a fine vertical fiber.  Two large balls each of mass M are placed near the ends of the dumbbell on opposite sides.  When the large masses are in the positions A and B, the small masses are attracted, by the Law of Gravity, and a torque is exerted on the dumbbell rotating it counterclockwise, as viewed from above.  When the large masses are in the positions A' and B', the dumbbell rotates clockwise.  The fiber opposes these torques as it is twisted.  The angle through which the fiber is twisted when the balls are moved from one position to the other is measured by observing the deflection of a beam of light reflected from the small mirror attached to it.  If the values of each mass, the distances of the masses from one another, and the torsional constant of the fiber are known, then G can be calculated from the measured angle of twist.  The force of attraction is very small so that the fiber must have an extremely small torsion constant if a detectable twist in the fiber is to be measured.

    The masses in the Cavendish balance of displayed in Figure, “Cavendish Experiment,” below, are, of course, not particles but extended objects.  Since each of the masses are uniform spheres, they act gravitationally as though all their mass were concentrated at their centers.

    Because G is so small, the gravitational forces between bodies on the Earth’s surface are extremely small and can be neglected for ordinary purposes.


    The Cavendish Experiment

    Cavendish Experiment

    The Cavendish balance, used for experimental verification of Newton's Law of Universal Gravitation.  Masses m and m are suspended from a quartz fiber.  Masses M and M can rotate on a stationary support.  An image of the l amp filaments is reflected by the mirror attached to m and m onto the scale so that any rotation of m and m can be measured.
    Reference:  “Physics, Parts I and II,” David Halliday and Robert Resnick

    In the figure, below, a comparison of two Nuclear Gravitation Fields propagating outward from the Nuclear surface, Nuclear Gravitation Field 1 has a greater intensity than Nuclear Gravitation Field 2 at the Nuclear surface.  When the effect of Space-Time Compression is considered, Nuclear Gravitation Field 1 undergoes more Space-Time Compression than Nuclear Gravitation Field 2.  Therefore, Nuclear Gravitation Field 2 leaving the electron cloud of the atom will have a greater intensity than Nuclear Gravitation Field 1 outside the electron cloud of the atom.  As previously noted, the Nuclear Gravitation Field for Bismuth-209 should be greater than Nuclear Gravitation Field for Lead-208 because it is significantly weaker at Nuclear surface.


    Comparison of Nuclear Gravitation Fields
    Originating from Nucleus

    Nuclear Gravity Field and Nuclear Electric Field





    Conclusion

    Compelling evidence that the Strong Nuclear Force and Gravity are one and the same is provided below:

    1. The methodology for the filling of Proton and Neutron Energy Levels in the Nucleus of the Atom indicates that the Strong Nuclear Force field propagates omnidirectional outward to infinity from the Nucleus.  When the Nucleus has a sufficient number of nucleons present to form a near perfect sphere, the Strong Nuclear Force field propagates outward omnidirectional to infinity with spherical symmetry resulting in the Gravitational Potential Field following a 1/r2 function.  Therefore, the outward propagation of the Strong Nuclear Force field is consistent with Newton’s Law of Gravity.

    2. The observed virtual disappearance of the Strong Nuclear Force at the surface of the Nucleus is a result of extreme Space-Time Compression.  This General Relativistic effect can only occur if the Strong Nuclear Force field is Gravity.  Only Gravity fields can accelerate light, electric fields, or magnetic fields to produce Space-Time Compression.  Gravity propagates based upon Uncompressed Space-Time; Light, Electric Fields, and Magnetic Fields propagate based upon Compressed Space-Time.

    3. Neutrons are required to be added to the Nucleus to raise the strength to the Strong Nuclear Force to overcome the rising Coulombic Repulsion Force of the Protons as Protons are added to the Nucleus.  Space-Time Compression within the Nucleus results in the Nuclear Gravitation Field rising slower than the Nuclear Electric Field as Protons are added to the Nucleus.  The Nuclear Gravitation Field propagates outward within the Nucleus based upon Uncompressed Space-Time so its intensity rises slower / drops faster than the Nuclear Electric Field propagating outward through the Nucleus.

    4. The Strong Nuclear Force appears to saturate as Protons and Neutrons are added to the Nucleus - Element 83, Bismuth-209, is the largest known Nucleus that is stable.  Space-Time Compression within the Nucleus results in the Nuclear Gravitation Field rising slower than the Nuclear Electric Field as Protons are added to the Nucleus.  The Nuclear Gravitation Field propagates outward within the Nucleus based upon Uncompressed Space-Time so its intensity rises slower / drops faster than the Nuclear Electric Field propagating outward through the Nucleus.  The Nuclear Electric Field is approaching the strength of the Nuclear Gravitation Field, therefore, the Elements beyond Bismuth are radioactive.



    Strong Nuclear Force  =  Gravity



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    Index and Direct Hyperlinks to the Other Web Pages on this Website:

    1. Gravity Warp Drive Home Page


    2. Nuclear Gravitation Field Theory


    3. History of My Research and Development of the Nuclear Gravitation Field Theory


    4. “The Zeta Reticuli Incident” by Terence Dickinson


    5. Supporting Information for the Nuclear Gravitation Field Theory


    6. Government Scientist Goes Public


    7. The Physics of Star Trek and Subspace Communication:  Science Fiction or Science Fact?


    8. “Sport Model” Flying Disc Operational Specifications


    9. Design and Operation of the “Sport Model” Flying Disc Anti-Matter Reactor


    10. Element 115


    11. Bob Lazar’s Gravity Generator


    12. United States Patent Number 3,626,605:  “Method and Apparatus for Generating a Secondary Gravitational Force Field”


    13. United States Patent Number 3,626,606:  “Method and Apparatus for Generating a Dynamic Force Field”


    14. V. V. Roschin and S. M. Godin:  “Verification of the Searl Effect”


    15. Constellation:  Reticulum


    16. Reticulan Extraterrestrial Biological Entity


    17. Zeta 2 Reticuli:  Home System of the Greys?


    18. UFO Encounter and Time Backs Up


    19. UFO Testimonies by Astronauts and Cosmonauts and UFO Comments by Presidents and Top U.S. Government Officials


    20. Pushing the Limits of the Periodic Table


    21. General Relativity


    22. Rethinking Relativity


    23. The Speed of Gravity - What the Experiments Say


    24. Negative Gravity


    25. The Bermuda Triangle:  Space-Time Warps


    26. The Wright Brothers


    27. Website Endorsements and Favorite Quotes


    28. Sponsors of This Website


    29. Romans Road to Eternal Life In Jesus Christ





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